1. What is thyroid?
    Thyroid is one of the major endocrine gland situated in the base of the neck just below the Adams apple (thyroid cartilage).It secretes iodine-containing hormones called triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

  2. What are the main functions of the thyroid hormones?
    They regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body.

  3. Is any other hormone secreted by thyroid gland?
    Thyroid also produces Calcitonin which plays role in calcihomeostasis.

  4. What are the most common problems developed in thyroid gland? 

    • Deficiency in thyroid hormone
    • Hyperthyroidism over active thyroid gland causing over production of thyroid hormone
    • Goitre – enlarged thyroid gland
    • Thyroid Nodule lumps in the thyroid gland
    • Thyroid cancer- malignant thyroid nodule
    • Thyroiditis- inflammation of thyroid

     

  5. What are the clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism? 

    • Fatigue
    • Sleepiness
    • Mental impairment
    • Depression
    • Cold intolerance
    • Hoarseness of voice
    • Dry skin
    • Decreased perspiration
    • Weight gain
    • Decreased appetite
    • Constipation
    • Menstrual disturbances
    • Arthlagia
    • Paresthesia
  6. Signs 

    • Slow movements
    • Slow speech
    • Hoarseness of voice
    • Bradycardia
    • Dry skin
    • Nonpitting edema (myxedema)
    • Hyporeflexia
    • Delayed relaxation of reflexes
  7. What are the symptoms reported more frequently in people with hypothyroidism? 

    • Excessive hair fall
    • Forgetfulness
    • Less sex drive
    • Getting more frequent infection
    • Snoring more lately
    • Sleep apnea
    • Frequent yawning
    • Gritty and dry eye
    • Feeling of sensation of Stickiness in the throat
  8. What are the clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism? 
    SYMPTOMS

    • Nervousness
    • Fatigue
    • Weakness
    • Increased perspiration
    • Heat intolerance
    • Tremor
    • Hyperactivity
    • Palpitation
    • Appetite change (usually increase)
    • Weight change (usually weight loss)
    • Menstrual disturbances

    SIGNS

    • Hyperactivity
    • Tachycardia or atrial arrhythmia
    • Systolic hypertension
    • Warm, moist , smooth skin
    • Stare and eyelid retraction
    • Tremor
    • Hyperreflexia
    • Muscle weakness
  9. What are the different types of goitre and causes? 
    DIFFUSE GOITRE

    • Thyroiditis
    • Hyperplasia of follicle epithelium
    • Iodine deficiency (endemic)

    MULTINODULAR GOITRE

    • Sporadic colloid goiter
    • Iodine deficiency (endemic)

    UNILATERAL GOITRE/UNINODULAR GOITRE

    • Sporadic colloid goiter
    • Solitary adenoma/neoplasia
    • The goiter may be toxic or nontoxic
  10. Causes of thyroid nodules? 
    Hyperplastic conditions - colloid nodule/nodules
    Inflammatory conditions - Acute bacterial thyroiditis (abscess)

    • Subacute thyroiditis
    • Hashimoto`s thyroiditis
    • Riedel`s thyroiditis
    • Benign neoplasms - Adenoma
    • Cysts
    • Primary carcinoma - Papillary thyroid cancer
    • Follicular thyroid cancer
    • Hurthle cell (oxyphillic) cancer
    • Poorly differentiated thyroid cancer
    • Anaplastic thyroid cancer
    • Medullary thyroid cancer
    • Secondary malignancies - Lymphoma
    • Metastases
  11. Common types of thyroid cancer 

    • Papillary thyroid cancer
    • Follicular thyroid cancer
    • Anaplastic thyroid cancer
    • Medullary thyroid cancer
  12. What is thyroiditis? 
    Thyroiditis is a collective name for several inflammatory conditions in the thyroid.

  13. What are the types of thyroiditis? 

    • Hashimoto`s thyroiditis
    • Atrophic thyroiditis
    • Silent thyroiditis
    • Postpartum thyroiditis
    • Juvenile thyroiditis
    • Focal thyroiditis
  14. What are the common investigations for thyroid disorders? 

    • Thyroid function tests (T3,T4,FT3,FT4 & TSH)

    THYROID ANTIBODIES

    • TPOAb (Antibodies against thyroperoxidase)
    • TRAb (Antibodies against TSH receptors)
    • TgAb (Antibodies against thyroglobulin)
    • ULTRASONOGRAM OF NECK
    • SCINTIGRAPHY (Technitium 99 pertechnetate)
    • RADIO IODINE-131
    • X-RAY NECK AND CHEST
    • FNAC (Fine needle aspiration cytology or biopsy)